Epidemiology, pathophysiology and complications of COVID-19: a literature review

Jhonatan de Assis Dutra Xavier, Frederico Lucas Alves Braz, Beatriz Lages Silva, Yanka Larissa de Souza Malta, Gabriela Baeta Neves Flor, André Luiz Silva Alvim

Resumo


Introduction: On December 31, 2019, a number of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause were reported in China, later called SARS-CoV-2.A virus with a high capacity for dissemination and which has shown its manifestation from mild symptoms to a high number of morbidities and mortality, being considered a pandemic on March 11, 2020.Objective: The objective, therefore, was to conduct a survey in the literature on a COVID-19, describing a pathophysiology, epidemiological aspects and complications in the patient.Methodology: This is a narrative review of the literature carried out in the databases of Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Health Information Locator (LIS), MEDLINE and IBECS.Results: On April 20, 2020, there were almost 2.5 million cases, with more than 150 thousand deaths, with higher rates of complications and worse prognosis in risk groups.Viral entry into the cell depends on the connection between the Spike protein, present in viruses, to a receptor on the cell membrane, most commonly ACE2.The high number of deaths can be associated with high levels of plasmin in the blood - frequently evidenced in patients from risk groups.Conclusion: Multiple organ failure and the presence of viral RNA in other organs demonstrate the spread of the virus among the body's organs, which may explain the high number of complications and support other possible forms of transmission.


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